Aquaculture production has more than tripled globally on a live-weight basis since the turn of the 21st century and has expanded into new geographies, species, and production systems. Professor Roz Naylor from Stanford University will review key areas of progress within the global aquaculture sector over the past 20 years, highlighting trends in both freshwater and marine systems. Specifically, she will discuss the rapid expansion in inland freshwater fish systems in Asia, gains in feed efficiency and marine resource use for fed aquaculture species, and the role of molluscs and seaweeds in providing food, non-food products, and ecosystem services. She will also address some of the vexing challenges that the global aquaculture industry continues to face, including pathogens and parasites, climate change, pollution, and harmful algal blooms. The role of public and private sector governance, as well as technological change, will be discussed as avenues for a sustainable global aquaculture sector in the future.